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In this episode Joel and Antonia walk through the four decision making processes of all 16 Myers Briggs personalities and demonstrate how they can show up developed and undeveloped.


In this podcast on developed vs undeveloped decisions you’ll find:


  • What is the difference between developed and undeveloped decision making?
  • In the Myers Briggs system, there are mental process or cognitive functions. Among these mental processes, there are 8 in total. 4 of them help us understand information and the other 4 help us make decisions.
  • All of our “should” statements are wrapped-up in the parts our brain that evaluates and make decisions in life.
  • This is also the parts of our minds that take action to accomplish the should statements.
  • There’s a limitation as to how many should statements we make. There are 4 different ways our brains make decisions. Depending on your Myers Briggs type, you favor one of these 4 as your primary evaluative mechanism.
  • We will take a look at what these mental processes will look like at their best and when they’re not at their best.
  • Quick review of the 4 decision-making processes.
  • Extraverted Feeling (Harmony) – ENFJ, INFJ, ESFJ, ISFJ
    • Harmony is all about getting needs (other people’s needs met). They’re interested in making sure the people’s needs are met, happy and getting along each other.
    • Focused on relationships. Relationships are important and so obvious to harmony people. They walk into the room and know the culture of the room right away.
    • When harmony is working at its best, it acknowledges everyone else’s conflicts. When a harmony person fears conflict, he/becomes ‘nice’ instead of being ‘kind.
    • Nice vs Kind. Being nice means not creating any conflict or issues that causes discomfort. However, in a world that’s full conflict, nice is not going to generate true and authentic harmony. It’s just a temporary fix that will soon fade out. When you’re being “kind”, you deeply understand what people authentically need. It’s calling out the negative feelings and addressing it properly in order to get to a true harmonious outcome.
    • Are you developing all qualities of kindness or are you just being nice?
  • Introverted Thinking (Accuracy) – ENTP, INTP, ESTP, ISTP
    • Accuracy is all about what makes sense and data. Is this logical and true? Does this make sense? This is the opposite of the harmony process. They focus on analysis and data.
    • Undeveloped Accuracy. Because accuracy is always looking for the beautiful and logically consistent argument, and because so many people don’t have developed processes like accuracy people does, Accuracy will favor a well-argued point or an elegant argument OVER the truth. When they engage in a debate, they have the tendency to agree or lean towards an argument that’s beautifully presented. In addition, accuracy people tend to reject other people’s arguments and believe in their own reasons. You’ll hear them say how dumb people are for not understanding things or they’d say “that’s stupid, why would anyone do that”.
    • Because there are so many premises that can’t be proven right or wrong, an accuracy person at the height of their development will frequently say “I don’t know” to a lot of stuff and they become very comfortable with saying it.
    • The more ungenerous you’re going with an idea, you’re probably in an undeveloped phase and the more generous you are, that’s where you’re headed to a healthy expression.
  • Introverted Feeling (Authenticity) – ENFP, INFP, ESFP, ISFP
    • What feels authentic and is alignment with the core values of who I am as a person, what I stand for, my convictions and identities.
    • Sometimes we like to feel emotions. It’s a feeler process and the emotion of righteous indignation.
    • Undeveloped Authenticity. Not having to hear or experience something that makes you feel uncomfortable is self-indulgent. Not having to take in any information that has you challenged how you feel something about the moment, is self-indulgent.
    • Mature Authenticity. Are willing to have their values challenged and questioned. They acknowledge that they might not be seeing something that put a stress on their values and make sure that they’re still in alignment with me.
  • Extraverted Thinking (Effectiveness) – ENTJ, INTJ, ESTJ, ISTJ
    • Effectiveness is about what works, what accomplishes the task or goal?
    • What works in the external world? It may not feel good but as long as it works, that’s all that matters.
    • Ultimately it’s all about what in the system works and is functional.
    • Mature Effectiveness. When it’s at its best, it’s really thinking in terms of sustainability. What is long-term sustainable. It’s understanding ecology and systems and the impact of your decisions.
    • Undeveloped Authenticity. If an effectiveness person is not willing to put the time and effort into building and managing truly sustainable models, they tend to short circuit into efficiency. With efficiency, sustainability is not taken into consideration or ignored.
    • Effectiveness VS Efficiency. When something is effective, it’s efficient long-term but it’s not efficient in the moment. Efficiency is almost always a very myopic short-term goal.
  • Anytime you’re going to grow, it’s going to be hard and you’re going to resist it because you’ve built patterns in your life to get a result that’s easy and doesn’t feel difficult.
  • This is the core of really making your life better and increasing your productivity
  • We believe that growth is something that’s worthy and important to focus on.
  • Ask yourself if you are implementing some of these less healthy expressions in your life and begin charting/observing it.
  • Ask yourself, “How can I make this better and mindful of these less developed manifestations?” “How can I practice my mental process in order to be at my best/optimal level?”

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  • Caroline

    Fascinating content as always :)! The podcast reminded me of a fight I had with my father about veganism. I’m an INFJ and I don’t want to exploit living beings for my mere physical pleasure. Of course, my decision is founded on the Harmony process: I want to be kind to everyone and that includes animals. My father, on the other hand, is an INTJ and argues that it is fine to eat animals because they lead a better life in captivity than in nature. He observed this as a boy on the farm of his uncle. The animals there always had shelter and food and were treated by a veterinarian when they became ill. So he was using the Accuracy process as you described it: Logical and elegant but with an outdated premise. When I tried to tell him that animals kept in mass stocks nowadays don’t enjoy such a life he shut down and basically called me dogmatic and hysterical. I, in turn, thought he was cold-hearted and snobbish. Do you have any suggestions how I could handle such a situation better in the future? Or how Harmony an Accuracy people can get along in general?

    • Lw

      Just a note, INTJs use Te, or Effectiveness, not Accuracy (Ti), so the thought process you are positing may need to be reexamined.

      • Caroline

        Oh you are right! Well, I guess “short-term thinking without concern for environment and people focused entirely on the goal (continue to eat meat)” does apply if we consider the consequences that the mass production of animals has for the planet.

        • Beca Lewis

          Caroline – I am an intj and have a vegetarian for at least the past 30 years. So this has nothing to do with what type we are. It’s a personal decision based on many components – as everything is. I can tell you that you won’t convince him by arguing. Well, that’s true for everyone. Instead, perhaps back up and let him be, and let him figure out what is right for him. Seems more important to me that you have a harmonious relationship with your dad, than what he eats. Isn’t THAT the beginning of true harmony?

          • Caroline

            I didn’t mean to imply that all INTJ have the same diet. I just analysed his argument (which happened to be about diet) on the basis of the mental processes that were described in the podcast. Also I think not speaking about our different diet would indeed be the undeveloped process of harmony: “to shut down all expressions of conflict”. So having a harmonious relationship at the cost of not being allowed to express my opinion isn’t really an option for me.

          • Beca Lewis

            I see what you mean Caroline!

  • Brittani

    This was great! I have a question with regards to development- as we all do, i use two of the functions you mention, however both are being used in an undeveloped way…. Is it likely that a driver function would still be undeveloped at 30? And how would i be able to discern which truly is my driver or copilot rather than inferior (more accurately, how would i know that the lack of development of what i think is my driver isnt actually my inferior if both are being in an undeveloped way?)

  • Lizzy

    This was a very informative podcast. You guys do a great job fleshing out these concepts and presenting them in a way that is useful for people. I am an INFP and I can definitely be guilty sometimes of questioning people’s motivations instead of looking at the implications of the information they present on the things I believe and value. Well, partially that is how I manage moving through the world – especially when I have a lot going on – and I think it’s okay. But I should be aware if this is going on around issues that matter. The way you explained the difference between developed and undeveloped Authenticity I think will help me recognize when I’m using Authenicity in a lazy way. I would be really interested in learning about developed and undeveloped perceiving functions. I probably struggle more with undeveloped Exploration since it is my second function.

  • Rebekah

    I pose a question of clarification with with type developments as individuals. It’s been a theme in previous podcasts and I find it to be a question in my own life as well. I self type and test type as INTJ, and strongly identify with Ni (perspectives) as my dominant perceiving function. Where I run into trouble is if my auxiliary function is in fact Te (Effectiveness) – which ostensibly I use – or if it’s really the behavior of an underdeveloped INFJ bypassing the Fe (Harmony) in favor of the tertiary Ti. Basically, my question boils down to how to differentiate between an underdeveloped INFJ who is out of touch with the emotional content of personality, and a functional INTJ. I’m also curious if other women T types struggle with expression of the T side fully or maybe even strong reaction against being socialized as an F simply for being XX, thereby not expressing it at all.

    • Antonia Dodge

      It can be a struggle to figure out your type if you’re highly identified with your tertiary process. And, yes – as women we have a lot of encouragement to go to a feeling process, even if it isn’t our strength. (I say this as an Fe tertiary ENTP woman, so I’m all sympathy on this subject.)

      A good litmus test is this – do you feel healthiest and most invigorated when you’re using a thinking process (in this case, getting things done as effectively as possible with human consideration fluctuating based on context) or when you’re using a feeling process (in this case, organizing things based on how humans interact with them and creating harmony from conflict)?

      Your sense of accomplishment and a feeling of “this is what I was meant to do” is a great indicator of your auxiliary process supporting your dominant.

      Hope that helps. 🙂


      • Ayaz


        For me, your advice, though sound, would not be very effective in helping me understand. The reason for this is because the litmus test you offer is very granulated (in a good way), but can leave one feeling as though they identify with both aspects of the litmus test.

        I can’t speak for the person who originally asked the question though. If an INFJ is heavily identified with Ti, then perspectives can offer ways to make it seem as though Ti is what one was meant to do.

        I think rather than looking carefully within oneself, the INFJ should look more at the obvious within themselves… what the instinctive urges are in certain situations. An INFJ, though they may forget sometimes, are naturally skilled with Fe. It requires some conscious effort, but if applied, it’s easy to navigate the social terrain of meeting new people or introducing a friend to other people and things of that nature. I imagine an INTJ would struggle with this. An INFJ, on the other hand, may not like to do this, but once in the moment, they will make the most of it because Fe demands it.

        It will be difficult for an INFJ to reflect inward to figure this out. Instead, it would be best to recall past situations and objectively look at whether Fe was being utilized or Te.

        Te people tend to not be facially expressive at all. An INFJ can carry a default cold look, but can fluidly become quite expressive as well. I’ve personally experienced times when I’ve been extremely upset, but when I had to deal with a stranger, I put on a friendly face because I did not want them to deal with my upsetness. I wager Te-Fi types would not give a flying shit about doing this type of thing. They would approach the stranger in purely Te terms.

        Sorry this post is not very organized, but hope it helps.

  • Arabella

    Hi, I found this podcast very interesting and have a specific question: I’m an Authenticity user and I was previously in a relationship with an Accuracy user. We often found ourselves engaged in conflict due to using our decision-making functions in an unhealthy way, as you outline in your podcast. I can’t help thinking that our different decision-making processes were poorly aligned in that Accuracy seeks “the truth” and, when healthy, will be open to other arguments if faced with a sound counter-argument based on facts. Authenticity on the other hand has little to do with “facts” in the traditional sense and is based on what “feels right”. (In the INFP podcast you mentioned that Authenticity was difficult for users of other processes to get a handle on for precisely this reason, which is why INFPs often feel invalidated and accused of being illogical.) I feel that this mismatch made it all too easy for both of us to slide into undeveloped mode and argue neither effectively nor respectfully.

    My question is this: as Authenticity users do not base arguments on facts, can an Authenticity user can ever really present an argument in a way that will be convincing to an Accuracy user? Or is it necessary for the Authenticity user to change their style of argument to speak Accuracy language? Can you say something about your personal experiences of this as Accuracy/Authenticity users?

    Just trying to understand and learn from past mistakes here 🙂

    • Antonia Dodge

      I’m totally going to let Joel comment on this one. I think he has some real insight here. 🙂


      • Arabella

        Thanks, I look forward to seeing what Joel has to say!

    • Sandra

      I’m very interested in the answer to this question, too!

    • Joel Mark Witt

      Hi Arabella.

      Thanks for the question. I sat down to write out a response several times and finally decided to grab Antonia and sit down and record a 30 minute PHQ episode to give more context.

      You can listen to it here:
      Introverted Feeling vs Introverted Thinking

      Love to hear what you think.

  • Prince

    Extremely useful and on-point, it can be used as a reference. well done, and thank you 🙂
    really looking forward to a broadcast about developed vs undeveloped data gathering mental processes. keep up the good work 😀

  • Jeffin

    Thanks for post.I came out as an infp in the question is that can one person use more than one decision making process? I kind of think that I still use little bit effectiveness
    And harmony sometimes .is it possible?may not be in perfect way but can relate to me personally the example situations u mentioned.

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